学术报告:王雅婷助理教授(清华大学)和卢晋研究员(OB欧宝体育官方网站入口)2021年12月22日(周三)9:30 -11:30科研楼三层阶梯教室

发布时间:2021-12-20 | 【打印】 【关闭】

学术报告:REVISITING THE ROLE OF AUTOPHAGY IN INFECTIOUS DISEASE

报告人:王雅婷,清华大学医学院

时间:2021年12月22日(星期三),上午09:30

地点:科研楼三层阶梯教室

邀 请 人:聂广军 研究员

报告人简介:王雅婷博士2008年本科毕业于南开大学生物技术专业,2014年获得芝加哥大学博士学位(导师:Olaf Schneewind教授和何川教授)。2015年以博士后身份加入美国圣路易斯华盛顿大学从事感染免疫的研究工作(合作导师:Herbert“Skip”Virgin教授和Christina Stallings教授)。2021年加入清华大学医学院任助理教授研究员,课题组负责人。

报告摘要:

Autophagy, a cellular degradative process, is suggested to be critical for cell autonomous defense against a wide range of pathogens. Therefore, it is of great interest to develop drugs targeting autophagy as a broad-spectrum treatment for different viral and bacterial infections. However, we have recently discovered that autophagy proteins play unexpected roles in the immune response against different pathogens, suggesting niche specific functions of autophagy proteins in responding to different stimuli. More specifically, we have found that mice lacking the essential autophagy protein Beclin 1 in myeloid cells exhibit enhanced resistance to Listeria monocytogenes due to increased proinflammatory activation of peritoneal macrophages. We determined that Beclin 1 is required to repress interferon-γ response in tissue-resident macrophages to ensure immune quiescence. This role is shared with FIP200, but not other essential autophagy proteins such as ATG5, ATG7 and ATG16L1. Our work demonstrates that a specific set of autophagy proteins, but not the entire catabolic pathway, function in an autophagy-independent manner to regulate immune homeostasis, which compromises host defense against some pathogens. When we performed similar studies with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), we found that autophagy genes conferred susceptibility to pulmonary infections of this pathogen, revealing a previously unappreciated role of autophagy proteins in lung immunity. We then questioned whether a high dose Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, which causes acute infection similar to S. aureus pneumonia, would require autophagy proteins to control. We found that mice carrying autophagy deficiency in myeloid cells infected with a high aerosol dose of Mtb showed susceptibility to Mtb. These preliminary results suggest that the activity of autophagy proteins in the lung can lead to distinct infection outcomes with different pathogens. Importantly, with the exception of ATG5, the autophagy proteins required to control a high-dose Mtb infection in the lung are dispensable for host defense against a low-dose Mtb infection. Therefore, these newer studies have uncovered yet to be elucidated functions of autophagy proteins during Mtb infection with a high inoculum dose.

  

学术报告:单分子取向超分辨成像

报告人:卢晋,OB欧宝体育官方网站入口

时间:2021年12月22日(星期三),上午10:30

地点:科研楼三层阶梯教室

邀 请 人:聂广军 研究员

报告人简介:卢晋研究员博士毕业于清华大学,毕业后于美国华盛顿大学、圣路易斯华盛顿大学从事博士后研究工作。主要从事新型超分辨荧光成像以及单分子电化学成像技术相关研究。近年来专注于“发展新型光学显微技术,以可视化方法定量研究单分子等微观个体独特的理化行为,及其在生命活动过程所展示的显著异质性与时空动态性”,应用于生命分析化学、单分子电化学、生物物理学等研究领域。相关研究成果以第一作者身份发表于Angew. Chem. Int. Ed(封底文章)、J. Am. Chem. Soc.、Anal. Chem.等期刊。

报告摘要:基于单分子定位的超分辨成像技术通过精确定位单个荧光分子,重构出超分辨图像。单个荧光探针作为偶极子,其吸收和荧光发射都具有很强的空间方向性,然而这种偏振特性往往在常规超分辨成像中被忽视。本报告将简要介绍如何通过改进单分子定位超分辨成像系统,同时获取单分子空间定位及取向等多维度信息。进一步展示单分子取向超分辨成像解析磷脂膜、蛋白、DNA等为代表的生物软物质/自组装结构的独特优势,展示单分子取向信息在单分子层次解析生物自组装体系中分子–微环境相互作用的广阔应用前景。

 

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